Historic Events of the Month
A fairly random selection of events of which the anniversary is in the month denoted below. If you have any historic happenings associated with the railways of Cumbria or nearby which you would like to see here, please contact the Archivist.
March 1857 – Accident at Carlisle Station
On March 4th 1890, G.P. Neele (the LNWR Line Superintendent) was to have attended the Forth Bridge opening ceremony. Instead he found himself being called to Carlisle to deal with a serious accident. In this extract from his Reminiscences, he recounts the story as follows:
“The train was the 8pm express from Euston. It appeared that there had been some trouble with the brake, both at first starting from Euston, the Gourock van requiring to have the brake thawed, and then again at Tring, where that vehicle had to be detached. The train was twenty-seven minutes late on reaching Shap Summit; it left there thirty-three minutes late, and the driver appeared to have lost control of the train after descending Shap incline. The train, with its thirteen vehicles all fitted with Automatic Brake, ran through Carlisle Station at about thirty miles an hour, struck a Caledonian engine standing on the line in readiness for the Limited Mail, and drove it by the force of the collision a quarter of a mile onward. Four passengers were killed on the spot by the crushing up of the leading carriages, and eleven injured, besides the drivers and firemen of the engines.”
Both an official enquiry and an inquest took place, the former headed by Colonel Rich, who ensured that the driver and his guards underwent very close questioning. Two causes were suggested: ice in the cylinders of the brake pipes, or possibly the driver mistakenly switching the breaking lever to simple vacuum rather than Automatic (thus preventing the guards from properly engaging the Automatic Brake in the carriages).
Colonel Rich thought the latter, but after hearing from several expert witnesses, the Coroner’s jury blamed the ice!
February 1937 – Snow Drifts between Carlisle & Hellifield
The following instructions were issued by the London, Midland & Scottish Railway Company during the winter of 1937:
“Station Masters and signal men between Hellifield and Carlisle must, during the Winter months, very carefully watch the weather conditions, and in the event of snow threatening keep the District Control Offices (DCOs) at Carlisle and Skipton continuously advised about it.
When heavy snow is considered probable the DCOs must be so told and remain open. They must advise the Motive Power Depots at Carlisle, Hellifield and Skipton, and the snow ploughs must be in readiness for quick despatch.
Should the Control Office at Skipton be closed at the time when such circumstances arise, the Carlisle Control Office must be advised and a telegram must be sent to the Skipton District Controller advising him of the position. The Station Masters and signalmen must suggest the ploughs being sent if they have any reasonable doubt that the line may not continue workable without them. The line should be kept clear, and snow not allowed to drift and cause stoppages.
Drivers, when they observe snow drifting, must stop and report it at the next signal box.”
Derailment on the Settle & Carlisle – January 1995
The start of 1995 saw the weather playing havoc with Cumbria’s railways, with tragic consequences on the Settle and Carlisle Line.
On January 31st the 1625 Carlisle-Leeds was turned back at Blea Moor because of flooding on the line north of Settle. North of Ais Gill in the Mallerstang Valley the two-car Class 156 Sprinter unit ran into a land slip which threw the train over onto the up line.
Passengers were evacuated from the leading car but within minutes the stranded train was run into by the 1745 Carlisle-Leeds, formed by another Class 156, unfortunately resulting in the death of the conductor-guard on the 1625 train and injuries to 26 passengers, mainly on the later train.
Rescue was severely hampered by the extreme bad weather and the remote site of the incident.
Restoration of through services was not achieved until at least a week later with a temporary bus link operating between Kirkby Stephen and Garsdale. Single line working is believed to have continued for somewhat longer.
Accident at Rosegill Colliery Junction – December 7th 1867
A collision took place between two mineral trains at Rosegill Colliery Junction, near Maryport, on the Maryport & Carlisle Railway. The following account was written by the Board of Trade Inspector – Lieutenant Colonel C.S. Hutchinson.
“The night was clear and moonlit, and the driver could see that the arm of the Rosegill distant signal post was at all right as he passed it. On previous occasions, after dusk, the arm had been at danger (though the lamp had not been lit), if a train had been stopping at Rosegill, and seeing this, he had been enabled to pull up in time.
On rounding the curve before alluded to as impeding the view of the main colliery signal, he found the latter against him, and immediately tried to pull up by reversing his engine, having his tender-breaks put on and whistling for the guard’s breaks.
There is no reason to suppose that these appliances were not used, but, nevertheless, owing to the speed (from 20 to 30 miles an hour), the weight of the train, and the descending gradient, the engine struck the van of the first mineral train at a rate of about six miles an hour.
The breaksman of this train, hearing the other approaching at a faster rate than if it had intended to stop, had, fortunately warned the colliers to alight, and all except ten had got out before the collision occurred; he also gave the coming train a red hand-lamp signal.
As before stated, eight out of the ten colliers in the van were severely shaken and bruised, the engine buffers were broken, the van damaged, and some waggons broken.”
The Inspector found that the accident would not have occurred had the distant signal been properly used, and a private arrangement with the signalman at Bullgill not been relied upon instead. He therefore held that the signalman at Rosegill should be held responsible!
Death at one of Lord Leconfield’s Bigrigg Mines – Whitehaven News November 23rd 1893
Mining and railways were inextricably linked in West Cumbria during the 19th Century. Working down a mine was a hazardous and potentially life-shortening occupation, whereas mine owners (or landowners who granted mining leases) could profit hugely.
The following account gives a flavour of the risks to employees: On Sunday afternoon a shocking accident occurred at Lord Leconfield’s iron ore mines at Bigrigg, by which a fine young man lost his life, another escaping almost by “the skin of his teeth.” William Jenkinson, 39, joiner, who lived near the Seacote Hotel, St. Bees, was employed on Sunday afternoon last, along with Joseph Pattinson, of Egremont, another joiner, putting into the shaft of one of the pits a ring for the purpose of catching water. They were lowered by the pit engine to the required depth and there got out onto a platform suspended by four chains attached to a rope wound at the top on a winch, by hand labour. The men signalled to be raised or lowered, as they required. They had been at work for about an hour and a half, and had been raised and lowered higher or lower several times when without warning the rope suddenly broke close up to the winch. The platform, which is called a cradle by the miners, at once fell. Pattinson was able to grasp a plank that was fixed across the shaft, and onto this he hung with his hands, while his companion went crash to the bottom with the cradle, a depth of between 30 and 40 fathoms. He was found quite dead. Pattinson was as soon as possible rescued from his precarious support, by which time he was completely done, and was facing the same terrible fall as inevitable just as relief arrived. Jenkinson’s mangled remains were removed to his home at St. Bees. He leaves a widow and one child.
Furness Railway: Specifications for Uniforms, October 1891
The Furness Railway had a strict uniform policy – probably no different than any other railway company at that time. The following gives a flavour of the standards expected of the FR staff:
|Coat:|| ||Single-breasted (SB) frock, ½ inch gold lace around sleeves, green cloth, gilt buttons, plain collar|
|Vest:|| ||SB, lined sleeves, no collar, gilt buttons|
|Trousers:|| ||Green cloth, fly front|
|Cap:|| ||Green cloth, French peak, set up stiff, “F.R.” in gold on front|
|Coat:|| ||DB frock, 2 buttons on sleeves, green cloth, gilt buttons, “F.R.” and number in gold on collar, ¼ inch gold braid on collar|
|Vest:|| ||SB, lined sleeves, no collar|
|Trousers:|| ||Green cloth, fly front|
|Cap:|| ||Green cloth, French peak, set up stiff, “Guard” in gold, oilskin covers|
Carters and Porters
|Coat:|| ||SB cord, brass buttons, badge on collar with “F.R.” and number in oval ring in red|
|Vest:|| ||SB cord, lined sleeves, no collar|
|Cap:|| ||Green cloth, French peak, carter to have “Carter” and porters “F.R.” on cap|
How different to today (many of us may feel)!
Buffalo Bill at Carlisle
On September 15th 1904 Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show, on its farewell tour, gave two performances at Carlisle. They say that 11,000 attended the afternoon show.
The railway was well prepared. In a self-fulfilling prophecy, trains to and from Carlisle were “expected to be heavy” and were to be strengthened. On the Silloth branch a relief train, comprising two Firsts, eleven Thirds and two Brake Thirds, was in readiness at Kirkbride Junction to follow the 11.15am and 4.35pm trains from Silloth, as required. If anyone was left over from these special trains, the Station Master at the first station affected phoned for another relief train.
There was much to talk about on the return special at 10.55pm; not only the thrills of the Big Top but also the fire which had gutted Her Majesty’s Theatre in Carlisle that same morning!
“The Bolton Loop” (1921)
August 1921 marks the closure of that part of the “Bolton Loop” running from Aikbank Junction to Aspatria. The line was built by the Maryport & Carlisle Railway, primarily to serve the various coal mines in the district.
The section from Mealsgate to Aikbank junction had just one intermediate station – High Blaithwaite – and was sanctioned in 1862. However, whilst there was some intermittent running between 1966 and 1869, the line was only properly opened between High Blaithwaite and Aikbank in 1877, and then back to Mealsgate a year later, after the whole track had been relayed.
Through trains were non-existent, and the line was in fact apparently treated very much as two separate branches, with there being little point in the station at High Blaithwaite as it served no village, merely farmers and a few dwellings at Bolton Low Houses. While the provision for passengers was minimal, with room for only one carriage at the platform, there were ample facilities for goods. There was a single-storey signal cabin to control points and signals for sidings to the coal drops and another to the loading wharf, goods shed and cattle pen.
However, in September 1906 the West Cumberland Times suggested that High Blaithwaite was “perhaps the most antiquated station in Cumberland”.
An MCR timetable for 1911 shows the passenger service was on weekdays at 8.50am from Mealsgate, arriving at High Blaithwaite five minutes later and terminating at Wigton at 9.07am. This then returned to Mealsgate from Wigton at 9.55am, stopping at Blaithwaite at 10.06am and Mealsgate at 10.11am.
As is well known the events of World War One and thereafter had a huge effect on the railway lines of Cumbria, resulting in a number of closures.
Whilst the Carlisle Journal reported that, in July 1921, “a petition, signed by every farmer in the district, was received with regard to the closing of High Blaithwaite station by the MCR and it was agreed that the General Manager of the company be asked to meet a deputation to discuss the matter”, it seems this was too late. The MCR went ahead with the closure of the branch from Mealsgate to Aikbank for both passengers and goods on August 1st 1921.
The Aspatria to Mealsgate line continued in use, but that too was closed on September 22nd 1930.
Closure of Moor Row shed
July 31st 2014 marks the 60th anniversary of the closure of Moor Row shed.
Moor Row’s origins as a town came about as a result of the mining and railway interests that became established in the area. Both depended upon each other for trade and support, and the fact that a convenient junction was required for the two branches of the Whitehaven, Cleator & Egremont Railway (WC&ER) resulted in the beginnings of the settlement. The original railway company was quick to build a workshop and engine shed at Moor Row, and after the formation of the Joint Lines, a new engine shed was provided, based upon a design used by the Furness Railway at Whitehaven and Carnforth.
A four-road shed, it was made up of two separate sections, each spanning two tracks. This had a hidden advantage initially, when mining subsidence forced the LMS to demolish the northern section of the shed in 1946. A new external wall was built, but to no avail, as the effects of mining in the area proved too much, and the shed was closed in 1954.
The shed at Moor Row housed engines working the Joint Lines, and eventually provided motive power for the Cleator & Workington Junction Railway. Normally stocked with Furness engines and those of the late WC&ER, engines of other companies also appeared, notably the LNWR and L&Y. However, at the end of its days, most of the compliment was made up of standard LMS designs, but more due to the scrapping of the pre-grouping types than for any other reason.
After the formation of the LMS, the shed was included in Workington (ex-LNWR) District No 32, and in 1935 the shed came under the Kingmoor group, taking the shed code of 12E.
(With help from Mike Peascod’s article in the CRA Journal of August 2004)
See also the Photo of the Month for July.
Last through train from Heysham to Wennington on the old “Little North Western” Line.
On June 3rd 1967 the last through train ran from Heysham via Lancaster Green Ayre to the West Riding. It was the 3-05pm Class C goods from Heysham Moss Sidings via Morecambe promenade goods yard to Leeds, Neville Hill, and hauled by an ex-LMS 5MT 4-6-0 no. 44898.
Following this train, the sections from Morecambe (the junction with the line to Bare Lane) to Torrisholme No. 1 Junction, White Lund sidings to Lancaster Green Ayre and Lancaster power station to Wennington would see no more scheduled trains, with signal boxes along the line being closed with effect from Monday June 5th 1967. Passenger services had already ceased in January 1966, Green Ayre and Scale Hall being closed, and the Leeds to Morecambe passenger service diverted via Carnforth.
The White Lund sidings had served the White Lund Gas Works since 1959, the latter being the last traditional coal gasworks to be built in England. Whilst most of the route to Wennington closed, two remaining single line stubs were then retained for freight purposes: Morecambe Promenade -Torrisholme Junction - White Lund Gas Works (used for coal trains) which closed in January 1970 (the official closure with effect from February 2nd), and Lancaster Castle - Green Ayre - Lancaster Power Station, which lasted until August 1976.
(With thanks to Les Gilpin’s “A North Lancashire Railway Album”, published by and available from the Cumbrian Railways Association).
Private Special Train – Carlisle to Dornock
On Friday May 18th 1917, the Royal Train was scheduled to arrive at platform no. 1, Carlisle (Citadel) Station at 9.43am in accordance with the Royal Train notice issued four days previously by the Maryport & Carlisle Railway.
The two Scottish railway companies involved in working the train forward from Carlisle to Dornock (the Caledonian and Glasgow & South Western Railways), both stated in their own special traffic notices, to what they referred to as a “Private Special Train”, an arrival time at Carlisle of 9.38am, followed by a departure one minute later at 9.39am for Dornock (G&SW).
The difference of five minutes on the arrival time at Carlisle would, on paper, to indicate a lack of co-ordination between the M&CR, and the two Scottish companies. Was there sufficient hidden recovery time in the M&CR Royal Train notice to arrive at Carlisle at 9.38am? Recovery time or not, surely with two Crewe-built Crested Goods leading, five minutes could easily be taken out of the timetable between Brayton and Carlisle.
Their Majesties King George V and Queen Mary were coming to the end of a five day visit to Cheshire, Lancashire and Cumberland. After an overnight stay at Brayton Junction on the M&CR, the Royal Train departed at 9.15am behind L&NWR Crested Goods 0-6-0s nos. 930 and 347, with no. 672 running 15 minutes in advance, as the Royal Train pilot engine.
All three engines performed as expected, with the result that the 12 car Royal (or Private Special) Train was able to leave Carlisle exactly on time at 9.39am, arriving in Dornock at 10.00am as planned.
(with help from Godfrey Yeomans’ article in the CRA Journal of Sept. 1996)
April 1866 – Frizington to Marron Junction
Substantial growth generated by a rise in the fortunes of the iron-ore industry was primarily responsible for the incorporation and building of the Whitehaven, Cleator & Egremont Railway from 1854 onwards.
Following the building of an initial line to Frizington, completed in 1856 and opened for passengers on July 1st 1857, a five mile extension was authorised to the head of the Marron valley at Kidburngill (later re-named Wright Green, and still later, Lamplugh), in 1861, primarily to move iron ore and limestone deposits from the mines at Rowrah and Eskett to the coast. However congestion caused by the single-line tunnel at Whitehaven persuaded the WC&ER to construct an alternative line north to Workington and Carlisle. This was constructed up the valley alongside the River Marron, until it created a triangular junction north of Bridgefoot with the Cockermouth & Workington Railway.
As was the case with the previous line to Rowrah, severe gradients and curves were experienced over the six mile line (the steepness of the line responsible for a runway mineral train at Frizington in 1857). Primarily built for goods traffic, and travelling through sparsely-populated countryside, remarkably it was opened for passenger traffic on April 2nd 1866, with intermediate stations at Ullock and Branthwaite, and remained open until closure in 1931.